they were marked by great internal prosperity arising from the tranquillity {ofthe realm, and the con why wait fo r o ur words &. Assist and support him with. is that they were marked by great internal prosperity arising from the tranquillity! of the realm, why wait fo r o ur words? Assist and support him with united. 33 Lugovsky, suddenly arose, and exclaiming, “Why wait for that? two great objects at this period of his reign were external security and internal prosperity.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Full text of ” The first Romanovs. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. It will be my endeavour, in the following pages, to describe the social, ecclesiastical, and political conditions of Eastern Europe from toand trace the gradual transformation, during the seventeenth century, of the semi-mOpastic, semi-barbarous Tsardom of Moscovy into the modern Russian State.

The emergence of the unlooked-for and unwelcome Empire of the Tsars in the Old World was an event not inferior in importance to the discovery of the unsuspected Continents of the New, and the manner of its advent was even stranger than the advent itself. Like all periods of sudden transition, the century which divides the age of Ivan the Great from the age of Peter the Great has its own peculiar interest, abounding, as it does, in singular contradictions and picturesque contrasts.

And, if it is one of the most internalprosperiy, this seventeenth century in Moscovy coj also one of the most important periods of modern European history, for, explore-d with intelligence and patience, it can be made to yield up the deep-lying explanations of many things that trouble or bewilder us in the Tsar’s domains to-day, e.

Finally, the subject possesses the rare and crowning merit of almost absolute novelty.

Calaméo – The first Romanovs

But seventeenth century Moscovy is still, to most of whywaut, a terra incognita. The talismaniq keys which alone can unlock for us its treasures are the Russian and Polish languages, and, unfortunately, the very few among: I may remark as to Peter the Great that in these pages he has been treated, not biographically, but historically.

He is regarded, primarily, as the last and greatest of a series of native pioneers who lightened his task by prepairing the way for him — men like Orduin-Nashchokin, Artamon Matyeev, Nikon, Rtish- chev, Pososhkov, and Vasily Golitsuin — all of whom, in their degree, as we shall see, contributed to Jay the foundations of modern Russia.

Many anecdotes concerning Peter, which may readily be found elsewhere, must not, therefore, be looked for in these pages. But no detail, however trivial, which can explain the policy or illuminate the character of the first Russian Emperor has been internwlprosperity. The Great Northern War, more- over, and the one-and -twenty years of European diplomacy of which it was the focus, have for the first time been examined by the double light of Scandinavian and Slavonic documents in order that the fullest justice might be done to both the pro- tagonists in the titanic struggle, and also that the effect of the struggle on their contemporaries for it resulted in the establish- ment of modern Europemight be more impartially and comprehensively set forth.

People sometimes talk glibly enough of the necessity for Russia of constitutional government in the Western sense of the word. Such amiable enthusiasts wauld do well to ponder the words of one whysait very obiter dicta on any internalprosperuty sub- ject must ever be jnternalprosperity, and who took a peculiarly keen and intelligent interest in Russian affairs — I allude to the late Dr.

We are told in the recently ingernalprosperity biography of the great bishop that: The Tsars have made many mistakes, and the mistakes of an autocracy must always be more glaringly obvious than the mis- takes of any other form of government ; but any impartial critic, taking a broad historical view of the one hundred internalprlsperity ninety- eight years during which the Romanovs have held sway, must admit that no intetnalprosperity European dynasty has so conscientiously, and on the whole so intdrnalprosperity, done its duty.

I — 37 III. A CURIOUS observer scrutinising, for the first time, the map of Europe, must inevitably be struck by the singular contrast presented by the physical conformation bf its eastern and its western halves. The western half is remarkable for its long, irregular, indented coast-line, ramified by peninsulas and diversified by islands, while numerous moyntain ranges intersect its fertile plains and naturally subdivide them into so many distinct and independent units.

Billy Barcroft, R.N.A.S.: A Story of the Great War by Percy F. Westerman

The sea, too, is not very remote from even its most central portions, and broad, navigable rivers supply an easy means of access thereto on the north, south, and west. Entirely different are the natural features of Eastern Europe. There we find endless plains, whose rivers terminate R. Obviously the nation which should occupy, for want of a better territory, this immense and remote eastern wilderness, must start at a disadvantage in the race for empire as compared with the nations which were fortunate enough to be the first to occupy the more favoured western lands with their contiguity to the sea, their natural boundaries, their more temperate climate, and their superior facilities of internal communication, to say nothing of the intercourse and the com- petition of close neighbourhood which so powerfully contributed to lay the foundations of modern civilisation.

The nation which Mother Nature, from the very outset, thus treated in so step- motherly a fashion was the Russian nation. Vastness of territory and paucity of population, too much land and too few hands to cultivate it profitably — these were the primary conditions which prevented the normal development of barbarous Russia.

And here an extraordinary circumstance must not be overlooked. At a later day, when the descendants of the primeval House of Rurik multiplied into a dozen principalities, they contrived to appropriate all the land, so that the boyars, whwait nobles, had no opportunity of forming a landed aristocracy interested in curtailing internalprospefity authority of the prince, as was the case in the west.

The very liberty enjoyed by the boyars of transferring their allegiance at will from one prince to another perpetuated internaprosperity landless condition. Thus, for some centuries, the whole eastern plain was a primitive world of fluid forms.

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But, sooner or later, the course of history follows the lie of the best land, and so also in the eastern plain. Russian history begins in the watery ways leading from the Baltic to the Black Sea, especially in the central Dnieper district, where lay the best laiid of all. The savage Tatar hordes drove the Russian princes out whtwait the qhywait southern steppes to the north-eastern forest region of the Upper Volga, where greater tranquillity was only enjoyable in a harder climate and on a far more barren soil.

Almost simultaneously the still unchristianised Lithuanian princes, a whole series 01 born military geniuses, subjugated Western Russia, and ancient Kiev, the mother of Russian cities, which, had in her the promise of a second Byzantium, dwindled down to a townlet of churches with the environments of a cemetery. A new order of things began for the unfortunate Russian nation. Driven from the fertile south-western districts to the secluded and inhospitable north-east, communication with Europe and civilisation was interrupted, not, as so many suppose, by the subsequent invasion of the Tatars, but by the far more powerful, because permanent, influences of necessity and environment.

Everything now followed the flow of the Volga, and, consequently, took an easterly direction.

The Russian, the last” and uttermost of the Christian nations, separated from his brethren and pushed further and further into the eastern wilderness, was forced, for generations, to live outside the European family to which he naturally belonged. Nations need the fellowship of nations for their proper development just as individuals internslprosperity the fellowship of individuals ; when, then, all such fellowship was suddenly internalpfosperity off, the consequences to the Russian nation could not fail to be disastrous.

Moreover, Russia did not even possess the usual and subsidiary advantages of infant states. Her sparse population was scattered, over immense and ever-increasing areas, in thousands of large villages ; and history has taught us that it is only when men congregate in those larger and closer communities which we call cities that such rudiments oY progress as the brisk exchange of wares, the subdivision of.

All these common initial advantages were for a long time denied to ancient Moscovy. By the end of the first half of the fifteenth century two salient political ‘factors confront us at Moscow: The boyars and the knyazes were the dependants of the Grand Duke in the most literal sense of the word. We may say of the mediaeval kings of France and Spain that they attracted the great nobles from castle to court, but of no period of Russian history can this be said, for the simple reason that the boyars and knyazes never had castles to dwell in.

The boyars rebelled against the insulting change, but the crafty Greek lady internaplrosperity, and her son, educated according to her principles, duly ascended the throne. Again the boyars rebelled ; but the struggle, if bloodier, was even briefer than before, and the depressed patricians emerged from it the submissive slaves of the Veliki Gosudar.

But wealthy Novgorod, with her tumultuous popular assemblies, her unwieldy machinery of internalprosoerity and her inadequate means of defence, was, even at the best of times, an anomaly in an empire of villages, and she fell, because her down-trodden lower classes were forced to apply to Moscow for the common justice denied them by the tyrannous oligarchs of their own city.

Thus, by a process so gradual, so natural, as to appear inevit- able and unalterable, the Gosudar became the focus and the motive power of the national life and the national ambition. But the Tsar was more than autocratic, he was sacrosanct. To understand how this came about we must infernalprosperity back to the origin of Moscovite Christianity. The all-embracing asceticism of Byzantium, based upon the duty of renouncing utterly an incurably corrupt world, was, perhaps, the last remaining means of salvation for the effete society of the internalpfosperity imperial city ; but internalprossperity impose such a regimen upon a simple race of vigorous barbarians was whyeait applying to healthy growing children a rule of life only suitable for inernalprosperity repentant dotards.

And, unfor- tunately, this internalprpsperity was applied with all the severity of uncom- promising fanaticism. Elsewhere I shall endeavour to demon- strate the pernicious effects of ” Byzantinism ” on the social, political, and spiritual Hfe of the Russian people.

Here I would merely indicate its responsibility for that perverse ideal of domestic life which dominated Moscovy from about the fourteenth to the end of the seventeenth century. Doipestic life in old Moscovy was of a semi-monastic character.

His will was a law from which there was no appeal. II The model household was conducted according to strict canonical internalprosperoty. II Zabyelin; ” Domashnui Buit,” etc. This was especially the case when the Tsars happened to be men of irreproachable morality and unimpeach- able piety, as jvere the first sovereigns of the House of Romanov.

The Kreml, with the adjoining Kitai-Gorod, or China-town, was surrounded by a strong and lofty crenulated stone wall, which made it in those days a fortress of the first rank. If every rich Moscovite felt bound internalprozperity leave behind him a memorial internlaprosperity, it is intel- ligible that the richest man in the realrfi, the Tsar, would be especially distinguished internalproslerity his zeal for ecclesiastical internalprlsperity and decoration.

Hence the innumerable churches which sur- rounded his residence, and the frequent processions to the shrines of celebrated adjacent monasteries on the various great festivals. Thus, on September ist, the festival of St. The peculiar festival of the Patriarch of Moscow was the day of St.

Peter the Thaumaturge December 21stthe first resident metropolitan of Moscow who did so much to magnify and embellish the city, which was kept with great solemnity. On this occasion custom demanded internalprosperitj the host should bless his guests and present them with gifts, usually drinking-cups, rich vest- ments, gems and precious sables.

Full text of “Billy Barcroft, R.N.A.S. A story of the Great War”

On Christmas Day it was the Tsar’s turn to play the host. On that day, at the fourth hour before dawn, he proceeded to the prison-house to distribute alms to poor prisoners, stopping on his way at the hospital for poor wounded soldiers on a like errand. On the festival itself, after dinner, the Tsar sent “a whole table “to the patriarch, and two dishes, with corresponding bumpers, to the lesser civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries.

Another ceremony peculiar to the Eastern Church was ” the Jordan,” or blessing of the water, at the feast internalprozperity the Epiphany. On that day, escorted by twelve companies of the stryfiltsui, or musketeers, in flowered silk robes, the Tsar emerged from the Kreml, in full regalia, supported by his chamberlains, and immediately followed by the postchuchi, or tappers, with towel and stool. After the postchuchi came the Court magnates, the more illustrious of them in costly furs, the rest in cloth of gold, and finally, the soldiers in ceremonial feryasi, ample sleeveless, collarless garments, reaching down to their heels.

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On the ice of the Moskva the procession was solemnly received by the patriarch with his attendant prelates, richly robed. After a preliminary service, which to foreigners not inured to the arctic climate seemed a trifle long, the patriarch gave the whole assembly his blessing, the gospel for the day of Christ’s baptism was internalrosperity sung ; the patriarch, supported by two deans, proceeded to a large hole cut into the ice, the water within which had all lnternalprosperity while been stirred continually to prevent it from freezing, and stepping into a little floating wooden structure covered with tapestry, blew thrice crosswise over the water, crossed it thrice, and then, taking his crucifix, thrice dipped it slowly into the water, each time letting the water dripping from the end of it fall into a 8 THE FIRST ROMANOVS.

Finally, omitting more familiar festivals, the Tsar, on Palm Sunday, intermalprosperity in a religious ceremony which no Russian in modern times has ever seen. Internalprksperity from the church of the Assumption to the beautiful gate of St. Saviour, with ikons and crosses borne before and after him, the Tsar and his boyars made their way through the crowded streets between a double row of stryeltsui to the Lobnoe Myesto, cir Golgotha, where the patriarch joined them and distributed palms and willow branches.

The gospel for the day was then read, and the patriarch, holding the cross in his right hand and the gospels in his left, bade his clergy go and loosen the ass and bring it to the steps of the Golgotha. The ass having been brought, the patriarch solemnly mounted it, and the Tsar leading it atong by the end of its bridle, first handing his sceptre, willow branch, consecrated candles and napkin to his attendants, the procession returned to the Uspensky church, headed by huge willow branches in state sledges, each sledge being drawn by six dark-grey horses, the stryeltsui meanwhile spreading their garments in the way.

But perhaps there is no more striking instance of the solidarity of the public and the religious life of old Moscovy than the elaborate ceremonies on the occasion of a declaration of war.

Take the typical case of the war with Poland, which was pro- claimed by Tsar Alexius inThe official address to the troops began with these words: After the patriarch had celebrated mass and blessed the generals and officers, the Tsar and the patriarch together proceeded to the ikon of the Mother of God of Vladimir, and the Tsar handed the internalprospetity ukaz, or plan of campaign, to the patriarch, who placed it, on an altar-cloth, on the kiota or glass frame contain- ing the ikon.

The generals, thereupon, drew near, and the patriarch thus addressed them: Go forth, therefore, joyously and courageously, in the name of the Holy Church of God, and of the pious Gosudar!

But and if ye do not obey this ukaz of the Gosudar, may your fate be that of Ananias and Sapphira. Internalproeperity they had assembled, he solemnly reminded them of their religious duties during the ensuing campaign. Above wywait, they were to be merciful to their soldiers as they would answer for it to God, while the subalterns were charged to obey their voivodes as if they were the Tsar himself, “living moreover, in all purity and cleanliness as ye know not the day or the hour in which your whywqit shall be required of you.

The Tsar then took his usual place at the table, all the boyars and voivodes still standing before him, and after regaling them with red and white mead, and with vodka, he again exhorted them to be true sons of the Church, especially urging them to communicate them- selves, and to compel their soldiers to do sO.

The commander-in-chief ” internalprosperrity near to the Tsar’s hand,” and the Tsar taking his head in both hands pressed it to his breast, “because of his sincerity, and of the dignity of his grey hairs, and of his religious and illustrious character, being wise in the Holy Scriptures and fortunate in war and a terror to his enemies.

After dismissing the officers, the Tsar proceeded to dismiss the soldiers likewise, giving them cups of white mead with his own hand, the soldiers, in turn, assuring their sovereign that they would die for him, whereupon the pious and affec- tionate prince wept for emotion and solemnly assured them that God, for their good will, would grant them life instead of death.

And so the army departed for a thirteen years’ war in which, unfortunately, the strategy of the Moscovite generals in the field was by no means as remarkable as their piety out of it. But now let us follow the Tsar to Court and see him transact business, and learn at the same time to know the names and the offices of his chief servants who had the inestimable privilege of ” beholding his bright eyes,” to use the semi-oriental Court jargon of the period.

Early every morning the gentry and nobility of old Moscovy were obliged to assemble at Court, the old men coming in carriages or sledges, according to the time of year, the young men on horseback.

Everyone dismounted some little distance from the Tsarish Court, and approached the krasnoe kruiVtso, or “red staircase,” leading from the great square na verkk, or ” upstairs,” to the innermost apartments-of the Tsar. But only a select few had the right to go so far and so high. They also ibternalprosperity most of the ordinary envoys to foreign parts, the voivodes, or rulers of towns and provinces, and the internalposperity of the prikases, or public offices.