An FDA oncology analysis of CD3 bispecific constructs and first-in-human .. The following information was collected for each IND from FDA/. Introduction. Blinatumomab (Blincyto) is a bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct that binds to 4 Are all required (*) and requested IND. The company just announced that the FDA has cleared the IND application for a humanized bispecific GD2 antibody. According to the release, it is anticipated.
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Bispecific Antibodies in Cancer
Bispecific antibodies bsAbs represent a relatively new and clinically validated class of therapeutic molecules. Three bsAbs have been approved for different therapeutic indications, and over 50 bsAbs are currently in clinical development. Scientists have been particularly inventive in creating solutions to the fundamental problem of combining two antibody specificities into one molecule, bispceific protein engineering playing a significant role in bsAb development.
So many solutions have been devised that therapeutic developers may choose from a vast array of bsAb formats. Different bsAb formats have distinct characteristics and support unique modes of action. When choosing or working within bsAb formats, developers must consider how these formats will influence factors bispecivic as biology and therapeutic activity.
Other factors that must be considered are developability, manufacturability, and stability. All these factors influence the progression of bsAbs to the clinic. The first generation of bsAbs was developed through methods including chemical cross-linking or from hybridomas. More recently, bsAb developers have created such antibodies with Fc regions.
These bsAbs can mediate Fc effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity and have the half-lives of normal IgGs. Alternatively, bsAbs without the Fc region bispecific fragments rely solely on their antigen-binding capacity for carrying out therapeutic activity. Due to their smaller size, these fragments have better solid-tumor penetration rates, but they are also rapidly cleared from circulation leading to shorter in vivo half-lives.
Now scientists can adjust the size, valency, flexibility, and half-life of bsAbs to suit the application.
The ability to bind two or more unique epitopes gives bsAbs greater versatility than conventional mAbs because they can target multiple fdx, cross-link cell surface receptors, pretarget oncological epitope-containing cell types, deliver therapeutics with reduced off-target damage, and redirect FcR- and non-FcR-expressing immune cells to kill target cells. Moreover, bispecifoc year, U.
And on March 29,the agency granted accelerated approval to Blincyto for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first or second complete remission with minimal residual disease greater than or equal to 0. The deal provided Amgen with both a cancer immunotherapy based on the bsAb fragment blinatumumab and the underlying technology that produced it.
Blinatumumab is a fusion protein made up of the variable regions of two single-chain, variable fragments linked by a nonimmunogenic five-amino-acid chain. Once the synapse is formed, blinatumumab leads to upregulation of cell-adhesion molecules and the production of cytolytic proteins that destroy the tumor cells.
Bispecific Playgrounds? No, Factory Floors
Despite great advances in antibody design, bispecifics pose production challenges distinct from developing and manufacturing monoclonals, as they require two different heavy chains, and two different light chains. This technology, which ihd the knobs-into-holes approach, proved a critical technical innovation that helped make the large-scale manufacturing of bispecifics possible.
It is now possible to generate bispecific antibodies in sufficient quality and purity for therapeutic use in clinical trials. We are bispecufic seeing production meet demand following the recent FDA approvals of new types of bispecifics.
Besides enabling the heterodimerization of heavy chains, the knobs-into-holes technology can be used to achieve the correct association of the light chains and their cognate heavy chains by exchange of heavy-chain and light-chain domains within the antigen binding fragment Fab of buspecific half of the bsAb.
Genentech scientists recently reported the development of novel orthogonal Fab iind and demonstrated that they can be used together with knobs-into-holes mutations for efficient single-cell production of bsIgG of different isotypes and species including human IgG 1IgG 2and IgG 4as well as reverse chimeric IgG 2a. Additionally, these scientists demonstrated that their designs can be used for efficient single-cell production of bsIgG in stable CHO cell lines, concluding that these single-cell-bispecific IgG designs may be broadly applicable for applications in biotechnology.
In this study, mosunetuzumab is being administered as a single agent and in combination with inr in participants with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and ond lymphocytic leukemia. Mosunetuzumab was designed to engage T cells and redirect their cytotoxic activity to a component of the T-cell receptor complex, and to CD20, a B-cell surface protein expressed in a majority of B-cell malignancies.
The big innovation in the last few years has been that people figured out how to make bispecifics with Fc domains.
That was a major design goal. We wanted to duplicate existing processes for manufacturing monoclonal antibodies, and we succeeded in doing that. The company has three additional bsAbs in Phase Fd development: More preclinical-stage bispecific programs are in development by Xencor and with partners Amgen and Novartis.
A diversity of antibody formats is conducive not only to developmental play, but also to the advancement of bsAb therapeutics to the clinic—so says a pair of researchers based at the University of Stuttgart, Ulrich Brinkmann, Ph.
In a recent paper MAbs ; 9 2: Brinkmann and Kontermann offered this view: Because of their their potential as novel therapeutics, new bsAb designs will keep emerging. MaxCyte develops and licenses cell engineering technologies to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. According to MaxCyte, the platform is capable of high-performance delivery of virtually any molecule, to any cell, at any scale. Brady asserts that the system, originally developed for cell therapy, allows developers to load challenging cell types at large scale and to work with challenging bispecifid types and biomolecules.
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